On March 26, 2000, Putin won the presidential election with about 53% of the vote. The Rus are the predecessors to the modern-day "East Slavs" of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. Yeltsin's defiant actions during the coup—he barricaded himself in the Russian parliament and called for national strikes—resulted in Gorbachev's reinstatement. Therefore, those looking to connect either side of the Persian Gulf are still allowed to transit through Doha. Obama told Putin that neither the U.S. nor the international community would recognize the results of the referendum. First among its political figures was Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik Party and head of the first Soviet Government, who died in 1924. The following day, observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe challenged the election, saying Putin won because he had no competition and government spending at his disposal. On November 7, 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control and established the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. The Department of State encourages all U.S citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad. On April 15, 2008, Putin was chosen as chairman of the United Russia party and agreed to become prime minister when Dmitri Medvedev assumed the presidency in May. The people we consider "ethnic Russians" today are the country's Slavs. On March 17, Obama imposed economic sanctions on 11 Russian officials and Putin advisers, including Crimean prime minister Sergey Aksyonov, who were "responsible for the deteriorating situation in Ukraine." The reforms have reintroduced jury trials in certain criminal cases and created a more adversarial system of criminal trials that protect the rights of defendants more adequately. Nonetheless, it clearly sent Putin a message. In a statement, Russia's Foreign Ministry said that it had increased its budget allocation "in the field of disarmament." The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world, stretching from Europe to the Pacific, and is a massive landmass for the origin, transit and destination of women, men and children who are trafficked into forced labor. Alexander II (1855–1881) pushed Russia's borders to the Pacific and into central Asia. • Nigeria remains a source, transit and destination country when it comes to human trafficking. The Soviet Union exploded a hydrogen bomb in 1953, developed an intercontinental ballistic missile by 1957, sent the first satellite into space (Sputnik I) in 1957, and put Yuri Gagarin in the first orbital flight around Earth in 1961. The law's most controversial provisions distinguish between religious "groups" and "organizations" and introduce a 15-year rule, which allows groups that have been in existence for 15 years or longer to obtain accredited status. Russia’s Tier 3 status is due to its refusal to meet the minimum standards to prevent, investigate, prosecute, or convict those involved with trafficking including government officials. The Russian Federation is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. Meanwhile, FIFA reported that it was also seeking out "clarification and more details" about the new anti-gay law from Russia, which would host the 2018 World Cup. ), Note: A majority of Russians are non-practicing or are not members of any religion, largely as a result of suppression of religion in the Soviet Union. In Sept., Putin nominated Viktor Zubkov, a close ally, as prime minister. Both countries agreed to lower the limit on deployed strategic warheads and launchers by 25% and 50%, respectively, and also to implement a new inspection regime. In his announcement, Porkhorov said, "I made a decision, probably the most serious decision in my life: I am going to the presidential election." Moreover, military officials complain that new recruit cohorts are plagued by increasing incidences of poor education, communicable diseases and criminality. President Medvedev called for an inquiry into the election fraud. While the State Duma, or lower house, voted on the bill, more than two dozen protestors were attacked by anti-gay demonstrators and then arrested by police in Moscow. Monetary PolicyLarge balance of payments surpluses have complicated monetary policy for Russia. source countries through transit countries to destination countries. Disorders broke out in Petrograd (renamed Leningrad and now St. Petersburg) in March 1917, and defection of the Petrograd garrison launched the revolution. Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area, but it's unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world. His introduction of European customs generated nationalistic resentments in society and spawned the philosophical rivalry between "Westernizers" and nationalistic "Slavophiles" that remains a key dynamic of current Russian social and political thought. Problems with both discipline and brutal hazing are common as well. Yuri V. Andropov, who had formerly headed the KGB, became his successor but died less than two years later, in Feb. 1984. The bicameral legislature consists of the lower house (State Duma) and the upper house (the Federation Council). Governors are now nominated by the president and subject to confirmation by regional legislatures. International Disputes: Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in June 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Russia remains involved in the conflict in eastern Ukraine while also occupying Ukraine’s territory of Crimea, Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission, Human Trafficking: Russia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; with millions of foreign workers, forced labor is Russia’s predominant human trafficking problem and sometimes involves organized crime syndicates; workers from Russia, other European countries, Central Asia, and East and Southeast Asia, including North Korea and Vietnam, are subjected to forced labor in the construction, manufacturing, agricultural, textile, grocery store, maritime, and domestic service industries, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping; women and children from Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central Asia are subject to sex trafficking in Russia; Russian women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the US, and the Middle East, Tier Rating: Tier 3 - Russia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making a significant effort to do so; prosecutions of trafficking offenders remained low in comparison to the scope of Russia’s trafficking problem; the government did not develop or employ a formal system for identifying trafficking victims or referring them to protective services, although authorities reportedly assisted a limited number of victims on an ad hoc basis; foreign victims, the largest group in Russia, were not entitled to state-provided rehabilitative services and were routinely detained and deported; the government has not reported investigating reports of slave-like conditions among North Korean workers in Russia; authorities have made no effort to reduce the demand for forced labor or to develop public awareness of forced labor or sex trafficking (2015), Illicit Drugs: Limited cultivation of illicit cannabis and opium poppy and producer of methamphetamine, mostly for domestic consumption; government has active illicit crop eradication program; used as transshipment point for Asian opiates, cannabis, and Latin American cocaine bound for growing domestic markets, to a lesser extent Western and Central Europe, and occasionally to the US; major source of heroin precursor chemicals; corruption and organized crime are key concerns; major consumer of opiates. Although still small by international standards, the Russian banking sector is growing fast and is becoming a larger source of investment funds. The European followed with similar sanctions and the U.S. added more sanctions at the end of the year. Its economy failed to compete with those of Western countries. Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area, but it's unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world. At the turn of the century, imperial decline became evident. In 1471 Moscow would declare war against and defeat Novgorod, and seven years later Grand Duke Ivan III of Moscow would assume complete control. However, China was on its way to being the world's biggest gas user by 2035. In 2000, President Putin grouped the regions into seven federal districts, with presidential appointees established in Moscow and six provincial capitals. Nearly 97% of voters in Crimea chose to secede from Ukraine in the referendum on March 16, 2014. ), Nationality/Demonym: Russian (Rossiyane for the nationality, Russkiye for the ethnicity), Languages: Russian (official) 85.7%, Tatar 3.2%, Chechen 1%, other 10.1% (2010 est. Rapidly becoming one of the richest countries in the world, China still continues to be a source, transit and destination country for sex trafficking. Next elections for the Duma occur in December 2007, and for President in March 2008. Nearly three dozen others were wounded. In the political system established by the 1993 constitution, the president wields considerable executive power. When he first arrived at the Russian airport, he expressed a desire for asylum in Russia. The fighting included smoke bombs, bottles, and sticks. Russian authorities began an investigation into all six deaths. Eleven days later, the U.S.S.R. was formally dissolved. These artifacts form a unique material archive that bridges hundreds of years and thousands of miles of Russian cultural history. Doku Umarov, a former Chechen separatist and the self-proclaimed emir of the north Caucasus, claimed responsibility for masterminding the attack. The July 1994 Law on the Constitutional Court prohibits the court from examining cases on its own initiative and limits the scope of issues the court can hear. )Growth Rate: 1.8% (2017 est. Principal Government OfficialsPresident--Vladimir PutinPrime Minister--Dmitry Medvedev. In March 2004, the Constitution was amended to permit the merger of some regional administrative units. Russia continues to support separatist regimes in Georgia and Moldova. Although human experience on the territory of present-day Russia dates back to Paleolithic times, the first lineal predecessor of the modern Russian state was founded in 862. and the significance of the country’s role in the international network as a destination country (rather than a source or transit country). But his efforts to reform the creaky Communist system from within failed. At the sentencing, activists outside of the courthouse began to protest, chanting "Free Pussy Riot!" The members of the Group of 8 industrialized nations announced on March 24 that they had suspended Russia from the group and moved the upcoming meeting from Sochi, Russia, to Brussels. (095) 728-5000; fax: (095) 728-5090). The freedom to travel abroad and emigrate is respected although restrictions may apply to those who have had access to state secrets. It was the first time in fifty years that a NATO member had shot down a Russian aircraft. Chosen to succeed him as Soviet leader was Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who led the Soviet Union in its long-awaited shift to a new generation of leadership. Spending increases to date have mostly been for increased salaries of government employees and pensions, but some money is also being dedicated to special investment funds and tax breaks to develop new industries in special economic zones. Opposition leader and former chess champion Garry Kasparov said the election was "the most unfair and dirtiest in the whole history of modern Russia.". Eventually Novgorod would try to create a military alliance with Lithuania—a Catholic country, which the Muscovites and the common people saw as a betrayal against their shared Orthodoxy. The agreement stated that all illegal armed groups will lay down their arms and all buildings seized illegally will be surrendered. Ursan, an adviser to the Syrian Writers Union, has publicly expressed anti-Semitic opinions and praised the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. 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